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Prob & Stats Standards  

The student will:


Describe events as subsets of a sample space and

a. Use Venn diagrams to represent intersections, unions, and complements.

b. Relate intersections, unions, and complements to the words and, or, and not.

c. Represent sample spaces for compound events using Venn diagrams.


Use the multiplication rule to calculate probabilities for independent and dependent events. Understand that two events A and B are independent if the probability of A and B occurring together is the product of their probabilities, and use this characterization to determine if they are independent.


Understand the conditional probability of A given B as P(A and B)/P(B), and interpret independence of A and B as saying that the conditional probability of A given B is the same as the probability of A, and the conditional probability of B given A is the   same as the probability of B.


Construct and interpret two-way frequency tables of data when two categories are associated with each object being classified. Use the two-way table as a sample space to decide if events are independent and to approximate conditional probabilities.


Recognize and explain the concepts of conditional probability and independence in everyday language and everyday   situations.


Calculate the conditional probability of an event A given event B as the fraction of B’s outcomes that also belong to A, and interpret the answer in terms of the model.


Apply the Addition Rule and the Multiplication Rule to determine probabilities, including conditional   probabilities, and interpret the results in terms of the probability model.


Use permutations and combinations to solve mathematical and real-world problems, including determining probabilities of compound events. Justify the results.


Understand statistics and sampling distributions as a process for making inferences about population parameters based on a random sample from that population.


Distinguish between experimental and theoretical probabilities. Collect data on a chance event and use the relative frequency to estimate the theoretical probability of that event. Determine whether a given model is consistent with experimental results. 


Plan and conduct a survey to answer a statistical question. Recognize how the plan addresses sampling technique, randomization, measurement of experimental error and methods to reduce bias.


Use data from a sample survey to estimate a population mean or proportion; develop a margin of error through the use of simulation models for random sampling.


Distinguish between experiments and observational studies. Determine which of two or more possible experimental designs will best answer a given research question and justify the choice based on statistical significance.


Evaluate claims and conclusions in published reports or articles based on data by analyzing study design and the collection, analysis, and display of the data.




Select and create an appropriate display, including dot plots, histograms, and box plots, for data that includes only real numbers.


Use statistics appropriate to the shape of the data distribution to compare center and spread of two or more different data sets that include all real numbers.


Summarize and represent data from a single data set. Interpret differences in shape, center, and spread in the context of the data set, accounting for possible effects of extreme data points (outliers).


Use the mean and standard deviation of a data set to fit it to a normal distribution and to estimate population percentages. Recognize that there are data sets for which such a procedure is not appropriate. Use calculators, spreadsheets, and tables to estimate areas under the normal curve.


Analyze bivariate categorical data using two-way tables and identify possible associations between the two categories using marginal, joint, and conditional frequencies.


Using technology, create scatterplots and analyze those plots to compare the fit of linear, quadratic, or exponential models to a given data set. Select the appropriate model, fit a function to the data set, and use the function to solve problems in the context of the data.


Find linear models using median fit and regression methods to make predictions. Interpret the slope and intercept of a linear model in the context of the data.


Compute using technology and interpret the correlation coefficient of a linear fit.


Differentiate between correlation and causation when describing the relationship between two variables. Identify potential lurking variables which may explain an association between two variables.


Create residual plots and analyze those plots to compare the fit of linear, quadratic, and exponential models to a given data set. Select the appropriate model and use it for interpolation.


Develop the probability distribution for a random variable defined for a sample space in which a theoretical probability can be calculated and graph the distribution.


Calculate the expected value of a random variable as the mean of its probability distribution. Find expected values by assigning probabilities to payoff values. Use expected values to evaluate and compare strategies in real-world scenarios.


Construct and compare theoretical and experimental probability distributions and use those distributions to find expected values.


Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions by finding expected values and determine if decisions are fair.


Use probability to evaluate outcomes of decisions. Use probabilities to make fair decisions.


Analyze decisions and strategies using probability concepts.

Pre-Calculus Standards  

The student will:


Know and apply the Division Theorem and the Remainder Theorem for polynomials.


Graph polynomials identifying zeros when suitable factorizations are available and indicating end behavior. Write a polynomial function of least degree corresponding to a given graph.


Prove polynomial identities and use them to describe numerical relationships.


Apply the Binomial Theorem to expand powers of binomials, including those with one and with two variables. Use the Binomial Theorem to factor squares, cubes, and fourth powers of binomials.


Apply algebraic techniques to rewrite simple rational expressions in different forms; using inspection, long division, or, for the more complicated examples, a computer algebra system.


Understand that rational expressions form a system analogous to the rational numbers, closed under addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division by a nonzero rational expression; add, subtract, multiply, and divide rational expressions.


Solve a simple system consisting of a linear equation and a quadratic equation in two variables algebraically and graphically. Understand that such systems may have zero, one, two, or infinitely many solutions.


Represent a system of linear equations as a single matrix equation in a vector variable.


Using technology for matrices of dimension 3 × 3 or greater, find the inverse of a matrix if it exists and use it to solve systems of linear equations.


Solve an equation of the form 𝑓(𝑥)=𝑔(𝑥)   graphically by identifying the 𝑥-coordinate(s) of the point(s) of intersection of the graphs of 𝑦=𝑓(𝑥) and 𝑦=𝑔(𝑥).


Interpret the meanings of coefficients, factors, terms, and expressions based on their real-world contexts. Interpret complicated expressions as being composed of simpler expressions.


Analyze the structure of binomials, trinomials, and other polynomials in order to rewrite equivalent expressions.


Derive the formula for the sum of a finite geometric series (when the common ratio is not 1), and use the formula to solve problems including applications to finance.




Write a function that describes a relationship between two quantities.

b. Combine functions using the operations addition, subtraction, multiplication, and division to build   new functions that describe the relationship between two quantities in   mathematical and real-world situations.



Describe the effect of the   transformations 𝑘𝑓(𝑥), 𝑓(𝑥)+𝑘, 𝑓(𝑥+𝑘), and combinations of such transformations on the graph of 𝑦=𝑓(𝑥) for any real number 𝑘. Find the value of 𝑘 given the graphs and write the equation of a transformed parent function given its graph.


Understand that an inverse function can be obtained by expressing the dependent variable of one function as the independent variable of another, as f   and g are inverse functions if and only if f(x)=y and g(y)=x, for all values of x in the domain of f and all values of y in the domain of g, and find inverse functions for one-to-one function or by restricting the domain.

a. Use composition to verify one function is an inverse of another.

b. If a function has an inverse, find values of the inverse function from a graph or table.


Understand and verify through function composition that exponential and logarithmic functions are inverses of each other and use this relationship to solve problems involving logarithms and exponents.


Interpret key features of a function that models the relationship between two quantities when given in graphical or tabular form. Sketch the graph of a function from a verbal description showing key features. Key features include intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, constant, positive, or negative; relative maximums & minimums; symmetries; end behavior and periodicity.


Relate the domain and range of a function to its graph and, where applicable, to the quantitative relationship it describes.


Given a function in graphical, symbolic, or tabular form, determine the average rate of change of the function over a specified interval. Interpret the meaning of the average rate of change in a given context.


Graph functions from their symbolic representations. Indicate key features including intercepts; intervals where the function is increasing, decreasing, positive, or negative; relative maximums and minimums; symmetries; end behavior and   periodicity. Graph simple cases by hand and use technology for complicated cases.

a. Graph rational functions, identifying zeros and asymptotes when suitable factorizations are available, and showing end behavior.

b. Graph radical functions over their domain show end behavior.

c. Graph exponential and logarithmic functions, showing intercepts and end behavior.

d. Graph trigonometric functions, showing period, midline, and amplitude.



Express a logarithm as the solution to the exponential equation, 𝑎𝑏𝑐𝑡=𝑑   where 𝑎, 𝑐, and 𝑑 are numbers and the base 𝑏 is 2, 10, or 𝑒; evaluate the logarithm using technology.



Understand that the radian measure of an angle is the length of the arc on the unit circle subtended by the angle.


Define sine and cosine as functions of the radian measure of an angle in terms of the 𝑥- and 𝑦-coordinates of the point on the unit circle corresponding to that angle and explain how these definitions are extensions of the right triangle definitions.

a. Define the tangent, cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions as ratios involving sine and cosine.  

b. Write cotangent, secant, and cosecant functions as the reciprocals of tangent, cosine, and sine,   respectively.



Use special triangles to determine geometrically the values of sine, cosine, tangent for 𝜋3, 𝜋4, and 𝜋6, and use the unit circle to express the values of sine, cosine, and tangent for 𝜋−𝑥, 𝜋+𝑥, and 2𝜋−𝑥 in terms of their values for 𝑥, where 𝑥 is any real number.


Use the unit circle to explain symmetry (odd and even) and periodicity of trigonometric functions.


Choose trigonometric functions to model periodic phenomena with specified amplitude, frequency, and midline.


Define the six inverse trigonometric functions using domain restrictions for regions where the function is always increasing or always decreasing.


Use inverse functions to solve trigonometric equations that arise in modeling contexts; evaluate the   solutions using technology, and interpret them in terms of the context.


Justify the Pythagorean, even/odd, and cofunction identities for sine and cosine using their unit circle definitions and symmetries of the unit circle and use the Pythagorean identity to find sin𝐴, cos𝐴, or tan𝐴, given sin𝐴, cos𝐴, or tan𝐴, and the quadrant of the angle.


Justify the sum and difference formulas for sine, cosine, and tangent and use them to solve problems.


Derive the formulas for the length of an arc and the area of a sector in a circle, and apply these formulas to solve mathematical and real-world problems.


Use the geometric definition of a parabola to derive its equation given the focus and directrix.


Use the geometric definition of an ellipse and of a hyperbola to derive the equation of each given the foci and points whose sum or difference of distance from the foci are constant.




Derive the formula 𝐴=12𝑎𝑏sin𝐶 for the area of a triangle by drawing an auxiliary line from a vertex   perpendicular to the opposite side.


Prove the Laws of Sines and Cosines and use them to solve problems.


Use the Law of Sines and the Law of Cosines to solve for unknown measures of sides and angles of triangles that arise in mathematical and real-world problems.


Use the relation i2=−1 and the commutative, associative, and distributive properties to add, subtract, and multiply complex numbers.


Find the conjugate of a complex number in rectangular and polar forms and use conjugates to find moduli and quotients of complex numbers.


Graph complex numbers on the complex plane in rectangular and polar form and explain why the rectangular and polar forms of a given complex number represent the same number.


Represent addition, subtraction, multiplication, and conjugation of complex numbers geometrically on the complex plane; use properties of this representation for computation.


Determine the modulus of a complex number by multiplying by its conjugate and determine the distance between two complex numbers by calculating the modulus of their difference.


Solve quadratic equations in one variable that have complex solutions.



Extend polynomial identities to the complex numbers and use DeMoivre’s Theorem to calculate a power of a   complex number.


Know the Fundamental Theorem of Algebra and explain why complex roots of polynomials with real coefficients must occur in conjugate pairs.


Recognize vector quantities as having both magnitude and direction. Represent vector quantities by directed line segments, and use appropriate symbols for vectors and their magnitudes.



Represent and model with vector quantities. Use the coordinates of an initial point and of a terminal point to find the components of a vector.


Represent and model with vector quantities. Solve problems involving velocity and other quantities that can be represented by vectors.


Perform operations on vectors.

a. Add and subtract vectors using components of the vectors and graphically.

b. Given the magnitude and direction of two vectors, determine the magnitude of their sum and of their difference.



Multiply a vector by a scalar, representing the multiplication graphically and computing the magnitude of the scalar multiple.


Use matrices to represent and manipulate data.


Perform operations with matrices of appropriate dimensions including addition, subtraction, and scalar multiplication.


Understand that, unlike multiplication of numbers, matrix multiplication for square matrices is not a commutative operation, but still satisfies the associative and distributive properties.


Understand that the zero and identity matrices play a role in matrix addition and multiplication similar to the role of 0 and 1 in the real numbers. The determinant of a square matrix is nonzero if and only if the matrix has a multiplicative inverse.


Multiply a vector by a matrix of appropriate dimension to produce another vector. Work with matrices as transformations of vectors.


Apply 2×2 matrices as transformations of the plane, and interpret the absolute value of the determinant in terms of area.